unix basics
July 14, 1995 (as amended)
(this page has a FreeBSD bias)


adduser add a user
cat display file
cd change directory
chmod change file access permissions
chown change file ownership
chgrp change file group membership
chpass edit user account properties
compress compress to .Z file
cp copy a file or group of files
cut filter delimited input
df show diskspace - used and free
env list environment variables
exit logout
find locate a file
fsck filesystem check and repair
ftp ftp client
ifconfig display network interface configuration
ls list files in directory
locate locate a file (faster than find - uses filename database)
mkdir make directory
more paginate output eg 'ls -l | more'
mount mount filesystem
mt manipulate the tape device
mv move or rename files
netstat display networking information
passwd password maintenance
ping test network connectivity
pr print file
ps list processes for current user -fu verbose -axuw list all processes including daemons
pwd display current ("working") directory name
quota list restrictions for current user -v verbose
reboot reboot the system
rm remove (delete) files
rmdir remove (delete) directory
route manipulate routing table
set show environment variables
shutdown shut down the system now right now
sort sort
su assume a different user's privileges
tar compress/uncompress .tar files
traceroute display the path of a packet to a host
umount unmount filesystem
uncompress uncompress .Z file
unlink delete a symbolic link
unzip uncompress .zip file -v list filenames only
uptime show system uptime and CPU load
whereis find file
who list current users on current system
whoami display the name of the current user
whois list details of specific user or domain
zip compress to .zip file